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The Date and Purpose of the Tangut Military Document Zhen guan yu jing tong 貞観玉鏡統


Pages 131 - 138

DOI https://doi.org/10.13173/centasiaj.57.2014.0131




The present paper is devoted to the study of a Tangut military code Zhen guan yu jing tong 貞観玉鏡統 哘蛙順楹嘸, an important document allowing a better understanding of the Tangut “universal conscription.” Research of this document had been initiated by late Prof. Kychanov, and I present this paper as a token of appreciation of his efforts.



小野裕子氏的文章分析西夏時期的貞「観玉鏡統」軍事法典。偉大俄羅斯西夏學專家克恰諾夫博士原來發現以及究研本套法典。


Junior High School, Okayama University of Science, 岡山理科大学附属中学校, Japan

1 Chen Bingying 陳炳應 translated 嘸 into Jiang 将, since he considered that 嘸 means the military regimental system (Jiangbingzhi) 将兵制 of the Song Dynasty. See Chen Bingying 陳炳應, Zhen guan yu jing jiang yanjiu 貞観玉鏡将研究 (Yinchuan: Ningxiarenminchubanshe, 1995), p. 5. However, he does not present direct evidence of the relationship between 嘸 and Jiangbingzhi 将兵制. I translate 嘸 as tong 統, since one of the purposes of the “Zhen guan yu jing tong” was to control domestic tribes. See pp. 7–9 of this paper.

2 See Wu Yulin and Arakawa Shintaro, XIXIA Documents Collected in Japan 日本蔵西夏語文献 (Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company, 2010), pp. 24–25.

3 The authors confirm their caption in the Oriental Manuscript Research. Dr. Kychanov reordered these documents in 2006. The old inventory numbers are Tang59, Nos. 2616, 2617, 2618, 3481, 4183, 4184, 7766, and 7931.

4 See E. I. Kyčanov (Kychanov) und Herbert Franke, Tangutische und chinesische Quellen zur Militärgesetzgebung des 11. bis 13. Jahrhunderts (München: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1990); Chen Bingying 陳炳應, Zhen guan yu jing jiang yanjiu 貞観玉鏡将研究 (Yinchuan: Ningxiarenminchubanshe, 1995); Hu Ruofei 胡若飛, Xixia junshi zhidu yanjiu “Ben Xu” mizhou shikao 西夏軍事制度研究≪本續≫密咒釋考 (Huhehaote: Neimenggu daxue chubanshe, 2003). E.И.Кычанов (Kychanov), Яшмовое зеркало командования войсками летправления Чжэнь-гуань (1101–1113) in Пцсьменные памятнцкц востока 2005, 1(2) (Санкт-Петербург: “Наука” Издательская Фирма “Восточная литература”, 2005), pp. 5–34.

5 See Kim Sonkyu 金成奎, Soudai no Seihoku Mondai to Iminnzokuseisaku 宋代の西北問題と異民族政策 (Tokyo: Kyuko Syoin, 2000). Yoza Ryoiti 與座良一, Hokusouki Sensei ni okeru Syouheihou ni tuite (Jiang bing in Shan xi area during the Northern Song Dynasty) 北宋期、陝西における将兵法について, in The Oryo Shigaku, vol. 36 (Kyoto: The Historical Society of Oryo, 2010), pp. 23–46. Ito Kazuma 伊藤一馬, Hokusou ni okeru Syouheisei seiritu to Sensei tiiki -taigai jousei wo megutte (The formation of the Northern Song military regimental system and the Shanxi region in relation to the international situation) 北宋における将兵制成立と陝西地域―対外情勢をめぐって― in SZ vol.CXX No.6 (Tokyo: Shigakukai, 2011), pp. 39–61. Ito Kazuma 伊藤一馬, Hokusou Sensei tiiki no Syouheisei to tihou touti taisei (The military regimental System (Jiangbing) and the Government System in Shaanxi Region in the Northern Song Dynasty) 北宋陝西地域の将兵制と地方統治体制 in Machikaneyama Ronso, vol. 46 History (Osaka: The Literary Society Osaka University, 2012), pp. 1–24.

6 See Kychanov 2005: 10 and Chen 1995: 66.

7 In the legal documents of Xixia, words that omit the title of the law are printed in the centre of the leaf. “Tong 嘸” indicates the Zhen guan yu jing tong 哘蛙順楹嘸.

8 See Hu 2003: 69.

9 See Songshi j. 485 Xiaguozhuanxia 夏國傳下 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1985), p. 14020.

10 In the Zhen guan yu jing tong, 2nd chapter, 51st and 52nd provisions, the “Han” 漢 尭, and “Khitan” 契丹 箋簪 are pointed out as enemies.

11 See Kim 2000: 15.

12 See the Songshi j. 485 Xiaguozhuanxia 夏國傳下 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1985), p. 14018.

13 See Ono Hiroko 小野裕子, Seika no Gunsyoku taisei ni kannsuru Itikousatu – Gunji Houten “Jougan Gyoku Kyou Tou” (The System of Ranks in Xixia Troops – Based on Articles of the Tangut Military Law Code “Zhen-Guan-yu-jing-tong”) 西夏の軍職体制に関する一考察―軍事法典『貞観玉鏡統』の諸条文をもとに― in New Trends in Studies on Liao, Jin, and Xi-Xia (3) (Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2010), pp. 107–134.

14 See Sato Takayasu 佐藤貴保―, Seika jidai makki ni okeru Karahoto no joukyou – Hutatu no Seikagomonnjo kara (Khara-Khoto in the last period of Xixia) 西夏時代末期における黒水城の状況―二つの西夏語文書から― in Oasis Tiikisi Ronso-Kokuga ryuiki 2000 nen no tenpyou (Kyoto: Shoukado, 2007), p. 77.

15 See Nakajima Satoshi 中嶋敏, Seika ni okeru seikyoku no suii to bunka 西夏に於ける政局の推移と文化 in THGH Tokyo vol.6 (Tokyo: Toho Gakkai, 1936), p. 13.

16 See Li Wei 李蔚, “Brief Comment on ‘Yu Jing Tong-in Zheng Guan Time”’ 略論≪貞観玉鏡統≫ in Social Sciences in Ningxia, no. 5, 1997, (Yinchuan: Ninxia Academy of Social Sciences, 1997), pp. 56–60. Li Wei 李蔚, Jianming Xixiashi 簡明西夏史 (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1997), pp. 205–218. Liu Jianli 劉建麗, Luelun Dangxiang Xiaguodejunshi zhidu 略論党項夏國的軍事制度 in Ningxia xuebao, vol. 29–6, (Ningxia: Ningxiadaxue, 2007), pp. 1–5.

17 See Okazaki Seiro 岡崎精郎, Tangut Kansyuho to Seika Houten タングート慣習法と西夏法典 in Tamura Hakusi Syouju Touyousi Ronsou 田村博士頌壽東洋史論叢 (Tokyo: Tamura Hakusi taikan Kinenjigyoukai, 1968), p. 130.

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