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‘Europeans’ in the Early Qing Empire

Wonmook Kang

Pages 217 - 252


This article examines the status of the Xiyang 西洋 people (a people who mostly— but not entirely—came from the region that would be demarcated as modern Europe) in the context of the early Qing Empire, beyond the frameworks of East (China)-West (Europe) or foreign relations. The article focuses on the relationships between the Qing and Johann Adam Schall von Bell during the Shunzhi and the Kangxi periods to query the way in which the Qing Empire’s origin and experience in Inner Asia affected the status of Xiyang people within its territory. The Qing Empire was based in eastern
Eurasia, and grew by incorporating peoples who had belonged to various other political entities. The Qing ruler granted them a new identity as ‘Qing people’ through the incorporation process, while at the same time allowing them to preserve their own cultures. The Qing Empire also applied this approach to the Xiyang people.


本文考察了那些被稱為西洋人(指來自近代通常被理解為『歐洲』地區的人)在清帝國內的地位。文章以順治至康熙年間清朝與湯若望的關係為中心,超越 東(中國-西(歐洲)關係或國際關係框架之外,探討滿清起源和在內亞的經歷如何影響清帝國與西洋人的第一次會面以及西洋人之後在大清帝國中的地 位。清帝國起源於歐亞大陸東部,通過合併屬於其他各種政治實體的族群而成 長。大清帝國賦予他們新的『清人』身份,同時保留了他們原有的文化,並將 他們用於帝國建設過程中所需要的各個領域。同樣的機制也出現在大清帝國對 西洋人的待遇上


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