Skip to content

A Textual Research on the Tangut Version of Mahākāruṇika-nāma-ārya-avalokiteśvara dhāraṇī

Pages 99 - 109


There are several Chinese, Tibetan and Tangut manuscripts and xylographs in the Xixia relics discovered presently, in which the Tangut and Chinese versions of the Mahākārunika nāma āryāvalokiteśvaradhāraṇi anuśaṃsāhitasūtrat saṃgṛhīta (hereafter cited as MNDAS) were respectively translated by Zhou Huihai 周慧海 and Xianbei Baoyuan 鮮卑寶源 from the Tibetan original transmitted into Xixia by a Kashmirian monk Jayānanda. But unfortunately, there have been only scattered Tangut fragmentary texts available so far. In 2010, I connected these fragments together into an almost complete text. However, the Tangut dhāraṇī is mostly reconstructed according to the transcription rules of Tangut, Chinese and Sanskrit dhāraṇī in the Uṣṇīṣa vijaya dhāraṇi anuśaṃsāhitasūtrat saṃgṛhīta (hereafter cited as UVDAS), for its Tangut and Chinese versions were also translated by Zhou Huihai and Xianbei Baoyuan respectively. Recently, I got more opportunities for investigating some new fragments of Tangut dhāraṇī in MNDAS and found some differences between these fragments and my former reconstruction. The aim of the present paper is to introduce these fragments and provide some transcription rules for interrelating Tangut, Chinese and Sanskrit.


Centre for Xixia Studies, Ningxia University, 寧夏大學西夏學研究院 Yinchuan, China

1 Duan Yuquan 段玉泉, Research on the Tangut version of Mahākārunika-nāmaāryāvalokiteśvaradhāraṇi-anuśaṃsāhitasūtrat saṃgṛhīta 西夏文《聖觀自在大悲心總持功能依經錄》考論, Nie Hongyin, Sun Bojun (eds), Researches on Historical Records in the Periods of Multiple Scripts (Beijing: Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, 2010) pp. 52–74.

2 These numbers come from Wu Yulin 武宇林 and Arakawa Shintarō 荒川慎太郎 ed., Xixia Documents Collected in Japan 日本藏西夏文獻 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2011). But in Matsuzawa Hiroshi's paper, these fragments are numbered as 36–2 and 37–1. See Matsuzawa Hiroshi 松澤博, Tonkō shutsudo seikago butten kenkyū josetu 敦煌出土西夏語仏典研究序說 (4), Tōyō shien 東洋史苑, 70–71, pp. 25–29.

3 Sun Bojun 孫伯君, Researches on the Newly Transcribed Dharanis in Xixia (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 2010), pp. 31–38.

4 The 11 Tangut characters above have not been found out yet. They have to be reconstructed according to the corresponding rules of Dharani in Tangut, Chinese and Sanskrit from UVDAS.

5 The 162 characters above come from Or. 12380–3740.3.

6 The 47 characters above come from Or.12380–3690.dd.

7 The 40 characters above come from Or.12380–

8 去, Or.12380– is “藹”.

9 The 155 characters above come from Tangut fragment 16, found in Lǜcheng, Inner Mongolia. Some characters can also be found on the Or. 12380– and Or. 12380–3690.l.

10 The 156 characters above come from Tangut fragments 39–30c, 39–31a, kept at the Tenri Central Library, Tenri University, Nara, Japan. But 撂仟剩菤羦, Or. 12380–3728 has no 剩;汕碽兽, Or.12380–3690.g becomes 汕碽兽剩;菤 of 菤羦蝚翬蛧虯, Or.12380–3728, 3707 is 备;耍汕, Or. 12380–3690 is 耍膎.

11 The 496 characters above come from Инв. № 4078. All can be seen in Инв. № 7592, Some can also be seen in Or.12380–3690.k, 3690.q, 3690.p, 3690.h, 3690.j,, 2950 and 2951.

12 According to the Sanskrit characters in the Fangshan shijing, Lin Guangming considers it to be jṇo, and believes that the consonants ṇ and ñ are the same. See Lin Guangming 林光明, Fangshan mingzhou ji 房山明咒集 (Taipei: Jiafeng chubanshe, 2008) 2, p. 646; 5, p. 179.


Export Citation