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From ’Ba’ rom to Ris med: A Genealogy of the Kingdom of Nang chen

Lucia Galli

Pages 91 - 118


The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the genealogy of the royal lines who
ruled the kingdom of Nang chen (present-day Nangqên County, Qinghai province)
from the early fourteenth century up to the Chinese Communist takeover in the
1950s. The chronological reconstruction of these lineages – being of historical
value in itself, due to the understudied status of Nang chen in Western
scholarship – corroborates our understanding of the nineteenth-century
phenomenon of non-sectarianism (ris med), presenting it as the
re-emergence of earlier tendencies and concepts. From the fourteenth century
onwards, the eclectic and inclusive approach adopted by local royal courts
gradually turned Nang chen from a ’Ba’ rom bKa’ brgyud stronghold into a
lodestone capable of attracting some of the most important spiritual figures of
the time, thus successfully integrating the kingdom into a wider geopolitical
network and setting the basis for the activities of later ris


本文的目的是重建自十四世紀初至一九五零年代中共統治下的囊謙王國(現為 青海省囊謙縣)之王室世系。長期被西方學界所忽略、具有重大學術價值的囊
謙王室世系不但進一步證實了我們對於十九世紀非宗派主義(ris med)的認 知,並且把這主義解讀為早期趨勢和理論的重構。此『非宗派』現象在當地貴
族家庭已經有幾百年的歷程。自十四世紀以來,囊謙王室採取一種折衷、包容 的宗教政策。因此,當地王室把囊謙王國從一個霸榮噶舉派(‘Ba’rom bKa’-
brgyud)的據點,漸漸成為一處能夠吸引當時最重要的精神思想家的地方,並 且成功把王國融合在更寬廣的地緣政治網絡裡,為非宗派主義思想家的宗教活

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