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The Association between the Descendants of Sufi Saint Sayyid Ata and the Khans of Khiva at the Beginning of the 19th Century

Shioya Akifumi (塩谷 哲史)

Pages 183 - 195


Sayyid Ata was one of the most active Sufi saints in the Eurasian Steppe regions during the post-Mongol period. The early Qongrat khans were eager to secure the support of Sayyid Ata's descendants for their campaign to conquer the Aral region by establishing marital ties with them and making religious donations for the tombs of Sayyid Ata and his tutor, Hakim Ata. The early Qongrat khans formed ties with the Ishans of Khojaeli, who were supposedly descendants of Sayyid Ata. The Ishans of Khojaeli served as administrators for the tomb of Sufi saints near Khojaeli, received respect from local inhabitants, and became meditators between the Khivan and Aral armies when the latter continued to wage fierce battles for the rule of Khojaeli, a strategic point on the border between the southern sedentary and northern semi-sedentary and semi-nomadic zones. By analyzing descriptions from the Qongrat court chronicles, Firdaws al-iqbāl, and information from field surveys conducted in the Khanate of Khiva in 1873, the author argues that the relationship between the Qongrat dynasty and the Ishans of Khojaeli was ideologically based on the early Qongrat rulers' piety toward the latter, who claimed to be the descendants of Sayyid Ata. Additionally, this connection favored the early Qongrat leaders' political and military conquest of the Aral region and aided in the establishment of a united royal authority over the Khorezm oasis. Consequently, the author argues that the Qongrat rulers tried to combine ideals and religious piety with their political and military motives.

賽義德·阿塔是後蒙古時期歐亞草原地區最活躍的蘇菲派聖人之一。早期的 Qongrat可汗渴望通過與賽義德·阿塔(Sayyid Ata)的後代建立婚姻關係並為賽 義德·阿塔(Sayyid Ata)及其導師哈基姆·阿塔(Hakim Ata)的陵墓進行宗教捐 贈,來獲得賽義德·阿塔(Sayyid Ata)後裔的支持,以支持他們征服鹹海地區 。早期的Qongrat可汗與Khojaeli的Ishans建立了聯繫,他們被認為是Sayyid Ata 的後裔。Khojaeli的Ishans擔任Khojaeli附近蘇菲聖徒墓的管理員,受到當地居 民的尊重,並成為Khiva和Aral軍隊之間的冥想者,當後者繼續為Khojaeli的統 治進行激烈的戰鬥時南部定居區與北部半定居半游牧區之間的邊界。作者通過 分析瓊格拉特朝廷編年史《Firdaws al-iqbāl》的描述,以及1873年在希瓦汗國 進行的實地調查的信息,認為瓊格拉特王朝與霍賈埃里的伊山人之間的關係在 意識形態上是基於早期的瓊格拉特統治者對後者的虔誠,後者自稱是賽義德· 阿塔的後代。此外,這種聯繫有利於早期的Qongrat領導人對鹹海地區的政治 和軍事征服,並有助於在Khorezm綠洲上建立統一的皇家權威。因此,作者認 為,Qongrat統治者試圖將理想和宗教虔誠與他們的政治和軍事動機結合起來 。


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