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The Twelve Families of the Töles // 鐵勒十二家族

Pages 265 - 272


The Töles, as one of the originators of the Turkic peoples, are alternately referred to in early Chinese sources as Tölöš, Tiele 鐵勒, ‘Red Di’ 赤狄, Dili 狄歷, Chile 敕勒, Gaoche 高車 and Dingling 丁零. All refer to the same people, the Gaoche rising to prominence during the fourth and fifth centuries CE. For a multifaceted investigation into the history of the Töles, this article proposes to examine this ethnic group in terms of family networks. Families constitute the smallest unit of social history and ethnology. By analysing the textual evidence of Töles families and their names in the extant sources, we can trace their changing roles within the ethnic and political processes of their time. Our analysis suggests that most of the Töles families have Xianbei and Ruanruan roots. Another outcome is that many Töles family members attained high positions in different states in China, eventually forming tribes, and thus shedding light on Turkic history in general.

鐵勒,古代突厥民族源流之一,最早文獻上有赤狄、狄歷、敕勒、高車以及丁 零之別名。其中高車一名與四五世紀聲名大噪。爲了多方面的瞭解研究鐵勒歷 史,本文將探討這一組羣的家庭網絡。家庭是鐵勒社會中最好的單元,通過對 現存有關鐵勒家族的文本材料的分析,我們可以追溯這些家族在政治和族羣地 位上的變化。此研究顯示,大部分鐵勒家族具有鮮卑會柔然族源,另外很多鐵 勒家族成員在不同的中原國家中出任重要官吏,甚至組織新的部落,並藉此基 本上離開了突厥的歷史敘事。

University of Istanbul – İstanbul Üniversitesi


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