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Miscellany on the Tumshuqese Documents

Ogihara Hirotoshi (裕敏 荻原)


Pages 11 - 24

DOI https://doi.org/10.13173/centasiaj.63.1-2.0011




Rather than being a linguistic note, Ogihara's article provides a convincing
summary of the research into the Tumshuqese (تۇمشۇق/圖木緮克/Tumxuk) dialect of
Saka, an Iranian language once located in the western Tarim Basin. With typical
accuracy, the author creates typologies of noun classes, quantifiers, terms of
address and fixed expressions, based on rarely used contracts in Tumshuqese. To
this end, Ogihara also compares the legal traditions and terminology of
contracts written in Prakrit, Khotanese, Yarkand Uyghur and Bactrian.



樤於圖木緮克畢文件的紛干問枴


本文疍細地分析屬於伊朗畢系塞畢的圖木緮克(تۇمشۇق)方瘀文獻。以前在塔渴木盆地皁漘發現的文獻一緔禫理佛教、國事ô但本文注意到法律枢的條約ô主
癿其名疢、稱為、成畢、渱疢等枢瞭畢。因此粅原眫敏教授以普拉克渴特、和 田、箷爾羌以及巴克特渴亞畢文來比烽本地區的歷代法律傳統以及條約灓 彙。


樤沋疢:圖木緮克畢、塞畢、塔渴木盆地、法律條約、中亞


東京大學 Tokyo University

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2 Bailey, H. W. (1958): “Languages of the Saka”. In: K. Hoffmann, W. B. Henning, H. W. Bailey et al. (eds.): Handbuch der Orientalistik. 4. Bd. Iranistik; 1. Abschnitt: Linguistik. Leiden: E. J. Brill. 131–154.

3 BD II = Sims-Williams, N. (2007): Bactrian Documents from Northern Afghanistan II: Letters and Buddhist Texts (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, Pt. II. Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and of Eastern Iran and Central Asia. Vol. III: Bactrian). London: Nour Foundation.

4 Cheung, J. (2007): Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb. Leiden: Brill.

5 Ching, Ch.-J. (2019): “The Four Cardinal Directions in Tumshuqese”. In: Pavel B. Lurje (ed.): Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference of Iranian Studies. Vol. 1. Saint-Petersburg: State Hermitage Publishers. 66–86.

6 Degener, A. (1989): Khotanische Suffixe. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.

7 DKS = Bailey, H. W. (1979): Dictionary of Khotan Saka. London: CUP.

8 Emmerick, R. E. (1968): The Book of Zambasta. London: OUP.

9 Emmerick, R. E. (1989): “Khotanese and Tumshuqese”. In: R. Schmitt (ed.): Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum. Wiesbaden: Reichert. 204–229.

10 Gharib, B. (1995): Sogdian Dictionary: Sogdian—Persian—English. Tehran: Farhangan Publications.

11 Hitch D. (1985): Tumshuqese Transcriptions. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329030821_Tumshuqese_Transcriptions (last access: 2018/2/18).

12 Hitch D. (1988): “Penalty Clauses in Tumshuqese, Khotanese and the Shanshan Prakrit”. Studia Iranica 17: 147–152.

13 Hitch, D. (1990): “Prakrit Administration at Tumshuq”. Paper read at the 33rd ICANAS. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320291220_Prakrit_Administration_at_Tumshuq (last access: 2018/2/18).

14 Hitch, D. (1992): “Tumshuqese reṣth- (reṣṭh-): Khotanese *hiṣṭ- ‘send‘”. Journal of Turkish Studies 16: 91–95.

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16 Konow, S. (1935): “Ein neuer Saka-Dialekt”. In: Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Berlin. 772–823.

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19 KT IV = Bailey, H. W. (1961): Khotanese Texts. Vol. IV. Cambridge: CUP.

20 Maue, D. (2004): “Konows Zeichen Nr. 10”. In: D. Durkin-Meisterernst, S.-Ch. Raschmann et al (eds.): Turfan Revisited: The First Century of Research into the Arts and Cultures of the Silk Road. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. 208-212.

21 Maue, D. (2009): Corpus of Tumshuqese Fragments. TITUS (Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien), see http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/indexe.htm (2018/2/18).

22 MW = Monier-Williams, M. (1899): Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon.

23 Ogihara H.; Ching C. (2014): “Xinshutsu tumushukugo kēyaku monjo ni tsuite” 新出セ゘ビオヘア畢契約文書について [On the Tumshuqese Contracts Newly Published in China]. Studies on the Inner Asian Languages 29: 7-55.

24 Ogihara H.; Ching, Ch.-J. (2017): “Some Observations on the Tumshuqese Documents Newly Published in China”. In: Team Turfanforschung (ed.): Zur lichten Heimat. Studien zu Manichäismus, Iranistik und Zentralasienkunde im Gedenken an Werner Sundermann. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 453–482.

25 Pinault, G.-J. (1984): “Une lettre de monastère du fonds Pelliot Koutchéen”. Revue de la Bibliothèque Nationale, 4e année, no 11, Printemps 1984: 21-33.

26 Rong, X.-J. (1992): “Suowei ‘Tumshuqese’ wenshu zhong de ‘gyāźdi-’ 所瓾‘Tumshuqese' ’文書中的‘gyāźdi-’” [On gyāzdi Found in the So-called Tumshuqese Documents]. Studies on the Inner Asian Languages 7: 1-12.

27 Rong, X.-J. (2005 [2009]): “The Name of the So-called ‘Tumshuqese’ Language”. Bulletin of the Asia Institute 19: 119-127.

28 Schmidt, K. T. (1986): Fragmente eines buddhistischen Ordinationsrituals in westtocharischer Sprache. Aus der Schule der Sarvāstivādins. Text, Übersetzung, Anmerkungen und Indizes. [unpublished habilitation thesis].

29 Schmidt, K. T. (1988): “Ein Beitrag des Tocharischen zur Entzifferung des Tumšuqsakischen”. Altorientalische Forschungen 15 (2): 306-314.

30 Schmidt, K. T. (2018): Klaus T. Schmidt nachgelassene Schriften bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Stefan Zimmer (Monographien zur indischen Archäologie, Kunst und Philologie, Bd. 24). Bremen: Hempen.

31 SDRK = Pinault, G.-J. (1987): “Épigraphie Koutchéenne, I. Laissez-passer de caravanes, II. Graffites et inscriptions”. In: Chao Huashan, Simone Gaulier, Monique Maillard and G.-J. Pinault (eds.): Sites divers de la région de Koutcha, Épigraphie koutchéenne (Mission Paul Pelliot 8). Paris: Collège de France. 59-196.

32 SDTV I: = Bailey, H. W. (1968): Saka Documents. Text Volume (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Pt. II: Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Period and of Eastern Iran and Central Asia. Vol. V: Saka.). London: Lund Humphries.

33 SGS = Emmerick, R. E. (1968): Saka Grammatical Studies. London: OUP.

34 Skjærvø, P. O. (1987): “On the Tumshuqese Karmavācanā Text”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1987 (1): 77-90.

35 Skjærvø, P. O. (2003): Khotanese Manuscripts from Chinese Turkestan in the British Library: A Complete Catalogue with Texts and Translations [Reprinted with Corrections] (Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum, Pt. II. Inscriptions of the Seleucid and Parthian Periods and of Eastern Iran and Central Asia. Vol. V: Saka. Texts VI). London: British Library.

36 SVK II = Emmerick, R. E.; Skjærvø, P. O. (1987): Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese II (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, Bd. 458). Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

37 SVK III = Emmerick, R. E.; Skjærvø, P. O. (1997): Studies in the Vocabulary of Khotanese III (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte, Bd. 651). Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

38 TM IV = Maue, D. (2016): “Tumschukische Miszellen IV / Miscellanea Tumšucica IV”. Tocharian and Indo-European Studies 17: 109-132.

39 TPR = Bureau of Cultural Relics of Tumshuk City, Center for Research on Ancient Chinese History, Peking University, Institute for Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions, Renmin University of China: Sanjian xinchu jushideyu qiyue =據史德畢契約 [Three Newly Found Tumshuqese Sale Contracts]. 皁域歷史畢瘀研究所椺刊 Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions 7 (2014): 63-105.

40 XPR = Xinjiang Kucha Research Academy, Center for Research on Ancient Chinese History, Peking University, Institute for Historical and Philological Studies of China's Western Regions, Renmin University of China: “Subashi shiku xiancun qiuciyu ji qita poluomi wenzi tiji neirong jianbao”. 秹巴什石窟現存恤糎畢及其他婆羅瓲文字枴痨內容簡報 [A Brief Report on the Kuchean and Other Inscriptions in Brāhmī Script Presently Surviving in the Subashi Grottoes]. 唐研究 Journal of Tang Studies 20 (2014): 411–438.

41 Yoshida, Y. (2006): “Honorific and Polite Expressions in Sogdian”. In Shirai Satoko, Shogaito Masahiro (eds.): Philological Studies on Central Asian Manuscripts (Contribution to the studies of Eurasian languages series, 10). Kyoto: Kyoto University. 81-94.

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