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Nuances of Disappearing and Destroying in Tocharian A: The Semantics of the Verbs näk-, wik-, mänt-, spärk-, nut-, and musk-

Maksim V. Vyzhlakov (Выжлаков Максим В.)

Pages 75 - 102


There are at least six verbs of disappearance and destruction in Tocharian A that are often translated synonymously, näk-, wik-, mänt-, spärk-, nut-, and musk-. The analysis provided in this paper shows that näk- is the “main” verb in this group, having the largest number of examples and the widest semantics, 'to destroy (including physically); to lose something precious (particularly life); to be destroyed; to perish; to disappear (mainly by dissipating or supernaturally)'. Wik- has a more specific meaning, 'to disappear (of something bad); to drive away, to remove (something bad)'. Spärk- also tends to have a narrower meaning than näk-, that is 'to vanish, to disappear (from one's sight, not supernaturally)'. Its causative paradigm means either 'to cause to disappear, remove; to be destroyed (not physically)' or 'to break a normal way/functioning of a process [e.g. fulfilment of wishes]'. The most surprising result is that the other two verbs, mänt- and nut-, probably are not synonymous to the discussed lexemes at all. Mänt- means 'to violate, to defile; to be angry, to scold; to be violated, defiled', and the semantics of nut- can be generally described as ‘to end, to be stopped; to cease, to stop’. Musk- is the only case where the evidence is so scarce and uninformative that it is hard to offer a more specific translation than ‘to disappear; to destroy’.

在吐火羅語 A 中,至少有六個表示消失和毀滅的動詞通常被翻譯為同義詞, näk-、wik-、mänt-、spärk-、nut- 和 musk-。本文提供的分析表明,näk- 是該 組中的“主要”動詞,示例數量最多,語義最廣,“破壞(包括物理);失去一 些珍貴的東西(尤其是生命);被摧毀;滅亡;消失(主要是通過消散或超自 然)”。 Wik- 具有更具體的含義,“消失(壞事);”趕走,移除(壞事)”。 Spärk- 的含義也往往比 näk- 更窄,即“消失,消失(從一個人的視線中,而不 是超自然地)”。它的因果範式意味著“導致消失,去除;被破壞(不是物理上 的)”或“破壞過程的正常方式/功能[例如實現願望]’。最令人驚訝的結果是另 外兩個動詞 mänt- 和 nut- 可能根本不是所討論的詞素的同義詞。 Mänt- 意思是 “侵犯,玷污;生氣,罵人;被侵犯,被玷污”,nut-的語義一般可以描述為“結 束,被停止;停止,停止’。馬斯克-是唯一一個證據如此稀缺且信息量如此之 大的案例,以至於很難提供比“消失”更具體的翻譯;摧毀'。

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