Skip to content

On ẅkẄrẄklẄr in the 32th Line of the Tuñuquq Inscription // 暾欲谷石碑第三十二行


Pages 97 - 107

DOI https://doi.org/10.13173/centasiaj.60.1-2.0097




This article is a study based on a small aspect of the Tuñuquq inscription, written in Orkhon Turkic – the oldest Turkic dialect where any documents are extant. Usually incised into stone or metal, but at times also written on paper with a calamus, this type of Turkic script is often referred to as “runiform” since vaguely reminiscent of Nordic runes. Located in the basin of Mongolia's Orkhon River, thus conveniently called ‘the Orkhon inscriptions’, it was the discovery of the monumental stone steles of Bain Tsokto, along the upper course of the Tola River, which caught the attention of the academic community. The first and bigger stone contains an inscription of 35 lines, dedicated to Tuñuquq, a significant official in the service of the first two kagans of the second East Turkic empire, in particular relating to the military campaigns which he contributed to.



本篇以暾欲谷碑文的一小部分為題,石碑刻字使用額爾渾河形式的古突厥語, 即是突厥語最古老文獻之一。一般刻於石頭或金屬,有時亦用羽莖筆書於紙上, 這種突厥字母與古代北歐之符文字頗為類似。因為石碑發現於外蒙古中部之額 爾渾盆地,所以也被稱為『額爾渾碑文』,而在位於土拉河上游的 Bain Tsokto 石碑群被發現後引起了學界的巨大興趣。其中第一塊較大石碑含有三十 五行,是獻給名叫暾欲谷的著名官員的。暾欲谷給第二突厥汗國提供最早的兩 位 kagan 之一,在一系列軍事行動中貢獻甚大。


Seoul National University 首爾大學校 서울대학교

1 Aalto, Pentti (1958a): “G. J. Ramstedt und die Inschrift von Tonjukuk”. In: Jean Deny Armaǧanı / Mélanges Jean Deny, Hazırlayanlar: János Eckmann, Agâh Sırrı Levend, Mecdut Mansuroǧlu, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınlarından – Sayı: 172, Ankara. 19–24.

2 Aalto, Pentti (1958b): “Materialien zu den alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei, gesammelt von G. J. Ramstedt, J. G. Granö und Pentti Aalto, bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Pentti Aalto”. Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 60/7. 1–91.

3 Ajdarov, G[ubajdulla] (1971): Jazyk orxonskix pamjatnikov drevnetjurkskoj pis'mennosti VIII veka. Alma-Ata.

4 Alyılmaz, Cengiz (2000): “Bilge Tonyukuk Yazıtları üzerine Birkaç Düzeltme”. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları 10. 103–112.

5 Alyılmaz, Cengiz (2005): Orhun Yazıtlarının Bugünkü Durumu. Ankara.

6 Aydın, Erhan (2012): Orhon Yazıtları (Köl Tegin, Bilge Kagan, Tonyukuk, Ongi, Küli Çor). Kömen Yayınları: 87. Konya.

7 Berta, Árpád (1995): “Neue Lesungs- und Deutungsvorschläge für die Inschrift Tońuquq”. Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 48/3. 313–320.

8 Berta, Árpád (2004): Szavaimat jól halljátok …, A Türk és Ujgur rovásírásos emlékek kritikai kiadása. Szeged.

9 Berta, Árpád (2010): Sözlerimi İyi Dinleyin …, Türk ve Uygur Runik Yazıtlarının Karşılaştırmalı Yayını, translated by Emine Yılmaz. Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları: 1008. Ankara.

10 Clauson, Sir Gerard (1971): “Some Notes on the Inscription of Toñuquq”. In: Studia Turcica, edited L. Ligeti, Bibliotheca Orientalis Hungarica XVII, Budapest. 125–132.

11 Clauson, Sir Gerard (1972): An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford.

12 Dankoff, Robert & James Kelly (1982): Maḥmūd al-Kāšyarī: Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Dīwān Luyāt at-Turk), Part I. Sources of Oriental languages and literatures 7. Cambridge/Mass.

13 Erdal, Marcel (1991): Old Turkic Word Formation: A Functional Approach to the Lexicon I–II, Turcologica 7. Wiesbaden.

14 Ergin, Muharrem (1970): Orhun Âbideleri. İstanbul.

15 Giraud, René (1961): L'inscription de Baïn Tsokto. Paris.

16 Li, Yong-Sőng (2003): “Zu QWRDNTA in der Tuńuquq-Inschrift”. Central Asiatic Journal 47/2. 229–241.

17 Li, Yong-Sőng (2004): Türk Dillerinde Sontakılar. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi: 40. İstanbul.

18 Li, Yong-Sőng (2008): “Orhon Yazıtları üzerine Bazı Notlar”. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları 18, Festschrift in Honor of Talat Tekin edited by Mehmet Ölmez. 207–228.

19 Malov, S[ergej] Je[fimovič] (1951): Pamjatniki drevnetjurkskoj pis'mennosti. Moskva, Leningrad.

20 Nadeljajev, V. M., D. M. Nasilov, E. R. Tenišev & A. M. Ščerbak (eds.) (1969): Drevnetjurkskij slovar’. Leningrad.

21 Nasilov, V[ladimir] M[ixajlovič] (1960): Jazyk orxono-jenisejskix pamjatnikov. Moskva.

22 Orkun, Hüseyin Namık (1936): Eski Türk Yazıtları I. İstanbul.

23 Orkun, Hüseyin Namık (1941): Eski Türk Yazıtları IV. İstanbul.

24 Ölmez, Mehmet (2012): Orhon-Uygur Hanlıǧı Dönemi Moğolistan'daki Eski Türk Yazıtları, Metin-Çeviri-Sözlük. Ankara.

25 Radloff, Wilhelm (1899a): Atlas der Alterthümer der Mongolei. Vierte Lieferung, St. Petersburg.

26 Radloff, Wilhelm (1899b): Die alttürkischen Inschriften der Mongolei. Zweite Folge: Die Inschrift des Tonjukuk. St. Petersburg (Osnabrück 1987).

27 Róna-Tas, András (1998): “Turkic Writing Systems”. In: Lars Johanson & Éva Á. Csató (eds.): The Turkic Languages. London, New York. 126–137.

28 Ross, E. Denison (1930): “The Tonyukuk Inscription, being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's final Danish rendering”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London VI/1. 37–43.

29 Rybatzki, Volker (1997): Die Toñuquq-Inschrift. Studia-uralo-altaica 40. Szeged.

30 Sprengling, Martin (1939a): “Tonyukuk's Epitaph: An Old Turkish Masterpiece”. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures LVI/1. 1–19.

31 Sprengling, Martin (1939b): “Tonyuquq's Epitaph: Transliterated Text and New, Scientifically Annotated Translation”. The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures LVI/4. 365–383.

32 Tekin, Talat (1968): A Grammar of Orkhon Turkic, Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series Vol. 69. Bloomington, The Hague.

33 Tekin, Talat (1991): “A New Classification of the Turkic Languages”. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları 1. 5–18.

34 Tekin, Talat (1994): Tunyukuk Yazıtı, Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi: 5. Ankara.

35 Tekin, Talat (1995a): “Some Remarks on the Tunyukuk Inscription”. In: Beläk Bitig, Sprachstudien für Gerhard Doerfer zum 75. Geburtstag, herausgegeben von Marcel Erdal und Semih Tezcan. Wiesbaden. 209–222.

36 Tekin, Talat (1995b): Orhon Yazıtları: Kül Tigin, Bilge Kaǧan, Tunyukuk, Simurg Dil ve Edebiyat Dizisi: 1. İstanbul.

37 Tekin, Talat (1997): Tarih Boyunca Türkçenin Yazımı. Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi: 19. Ankara.

38 Tekin, Talat (2000): Orhon Türkçesi Grameri, Türk Dilleri Araştırmaları Dizisi: 9. Ankara.

39 Tekin, Talat (2008): 돌궐 비문 연구 – 퀼 티긴 비문, 빌개 카간 비문, 투뉴쿠크 비문 [Dolgwəl Bimun Yəngu – Kül Tigin Bimun, Bilgä Kagan Bimun, Tunyukukï Bimun = Researches into the Orkhon Inscriptions – Kül Tigin Inscription, Bilgä Qayan Inscription, Tuñuquq Inscription], translated and annotated by Yong-Sőng Li. Seoul.

40 Tekin, Talat & Mehmet Ölmez (1999): Türk Dilleri – Giriş –. İstanbul.

41 Tezcan, S[emih] (1976): “Tonyukuk yazıtında birkaç düzeltme”. Türk Dili Araştırmaları Yıllıǧı –Belleten 1975–1976. 173–181.

42 Thomsen, Vilhelm (1924): “Alttürkische Inschriften aus der Mongolei, in übersetzung und mit Einleitung”, übersetzt von Hans Heinrich Schaeder. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 78. 121–175.

43 User, Hatice Şirin (2009): Köktürk ve Ötüken Uygur Kağanlıǧı Yazıtları. Kömen Yayınları: 32, Türk Dili Dizisi: 1. Konya.

Share


Export Citation